(a) GENESIS: In response
to the request from Ministry of Sports regarding an inquiry inot match fixing
and related malpractices in Indian Cricket, vide DO No. F-23-8/2000-SP.III from
Shri N.N. Khanna, Secretary, Ministry of Culture, Youth Affairs and Sports, CBI
registered a Preliminary Enquiry No. 2/S/2000 on 2.5.2000. the scope of the PE
is broadly limited to the letter of Shri N.N. Khanna in which there is a general
mention of various allegations as they had appeared in the media as well as
issues raised during a debate in both the Houses of Parliament. The Ministry's
letter further requests the CBI to collect and evaluate various news-items and
information published in both the print and electronic media and conduct a
comprehensive enquiry into the allegations of match fixing and related
malpractices connected with the game of cricket.
(b) PARAMETERS: After registering the PE, CBI undertook an exercise to
fix certain parameters, since the enquiry was open-ended with setting for itself
any specific time-frame for which the probe was to be conducted or specific
allegations or names which had to be looked into or specific areas which had to
be enquired into in this connection it was decided that first of all a broad
enquiry was to be made to ascertain whether match fixing and other malpractices
connected with the game of cricket existed.
Accordingly, the following corner-stones were fixed as primary focal points of
(1) to identify the betting syndicates operating in India and examine their
(2) to unravel the linkage of cricket players or their intermediaries with these
syndicates and their roles in the alleged malpractices; and
(3) to examine the role and function of BCCI so as to evaluate whether it could
have prevented the alleged malpractices.
(c) MECHANICS USED:
(i) All available overt and covert
information about players, ex-players, bookies and middlemen whose names had
figured in the various media reports and through sources developed by CBI was
shortlisted and all relevant facts regarding them including details of property,
details of business associates, etc. collected.
(ii) The general public were
requested to come forth with information, if any, regarding match fixing, etc.
through appeals published and broadcast in the print and electronic media.
An intensive exercise was conducted to analyse telephone and mobile phone
printouts to establish a player-bookie nexus, if any. In this exercise,
thousands of pages of mobile phones and land line printouts including those of
players, their relatives, associates, and bookies, etc. were analysed through a
specially designed computed software. Details of telephone calls made by cricket
players from their hotel rooms during recent matches were also analysed.
The tapes, which were allegedly shot clandestinely by Tehelka.com along with
Manoj Prabahakar, were also studied.
(v) After collecting relevant
material/evidence as listed above, individual players, past and present,
officials and bookies were examined and they were confronted with evidence at
hand which the CBI and gathered during its enquiry.
AN INTERPRETATION OF THE TERMINOLOGY- 'Match Fixing' in this enquiry is used as
an omnibus phrase to denote the following: (i) instances where an individual
player or group of players received money individually/collectively to
underperform; (ii) instances where a player placed bets in matches in which he
played that would naturally undermine his performance; (iii) instances where
players passed on information to a betting syndicate about team composition,
probable result, pitch condition, whether, etc., (iv) instances where groundsmen
were given money to prepare a pitch in a way which suited the betting syndicate;
and (v) instances of current and ex-players being used by bookies to gain access
to Indian and foreign players to influence their performance for a
monetary consideration. [Contd...]